Rajasthani Language and Literature

Rajasthani Language is one of the prominent members of Indo-Aryan languages family. It is spoken by around 80 million peoples in Rajasthan and other states of India. Rajasthani is spoken in Rajasthan, Haryana some parts of western Madhya Pradesh in Malwa, and Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Sindh.  Rajasthan's folk literature is rich and varied in its nature and exists in forms of the folk songs, so famous folklores, witty sayings and proverbs, riddles and much-treasured folk-plays known as 'khayals'. The most common language of Rajasthan is Marwari, spoken mainly in and around Jodhpur district. The mixed dialects of Marwari are also spoken in Barmer, Jalore, Pali, part of Nagaur district. In the east, it influences the dialects of Ajmer, Udaipur, Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, to the south in Sirohi district and in the west, it affects the dialects of Jaisalmer district. Bikaner, Churu, Sikar and Jhunjhunu districts in the north are also influenced by Marwari while in the northwest, it is spoken with Punjabi influence in the Ganganagar district.
Major variant of Rajasthani languages:
1. Mewari
: About 5 million speakers in Rajsamand, Bhilwara, Udaipur, and Chittorgarh districts of Rajasthan state of India.
2. Bagri: About 5 million speakers in Hanumangarh and Sriganganagar districts of Rajasthan, Sirsa and Hissar districts of Haryana.It is spoken in Fazilka and in some villages of Mukatsar district of Punjab of India as minority language. Bahawalpur and Bahawalnagar areas of Punjab of Pakistan.
3. Shekhawati: About 3 million speakers in Churu, Jhunjhunu and Sikar districts of Rajasthan.
4. Ahirwati: spoken in Mahendragarh and Rewari districts of Haryana.
5. Marwari: About 13 million speakers in western Rajasthan comprising Jodhpur, Pali, Sirohi, Jalore, Jaisalmer, Churu, Bikaner, Nagaur, Ajmer, and Barmer districts of Rajasthan. It is also spoken in eastern parts of upper Sindh province of Pakistan.
6. Dhundhari: About 9 million persons in Jaipur, Dausa, Tonk, Ajmer, Karauli and Sawai Madhopur districts of Rajasthan. It was first surveyed by G. Macliester who published specimens of 15 varieties of Dhundhari spoken in the territory of the former state of Jaipur in 1898.
7. Hadoti: About 4 million speakers in Kota, Bundi, Baran and Jhalawar districts of Rajasthan. It has a nominative marker which is absent in other dialects of Rajasthani.
8. Wagdi: About 3–5 million speakers in Banswara, Dungarpur, Kushalgarh, and Pratapgarh districts of Rajasthan state of India.
9. Mewati: About 5 million speakers in Mewat region of Haryana(Gurgaon and Mewat districts) and adjoining Alwar district of Rajasthan.
Rajasthani literature written in various genres starting from 1000 AD. But, it is generally agreed that modern Rajasthani literature began with the works of Surajmal Misrana. His most important works are the Vansa Bhaskara and the Vir Satsai. Medieval Rajasthani literature is mostly poetry only and it is more about the heroic poetry mentioning of the great kings and fighters of the Rajasthan. as said by Ravindra Nath Tagore once, "The heroic sentiment which is the essence of every song and couplet of a Rajasthani is peculiar emotion of its own of which, however, the whole country may be proud". Early Rajasthani literature is created by mostly Jain saints.

राजस्थानी भाषा एवं साहित्य पर आधारित कुछ प्रश्न:
1. चेतावनी री चुंगटिया के रचयिता कौन थे ?
- केसरी सिंह बारहट

2. जागती जोत मासिक पत्रिका का प्रकाशन होता है ?
- राजस्थानी भाषा, साहित्य एवं संस्कृति अकादमी, बीकानेर द्वारा

3 . 'राजस्थान का गजेटियर' कहा किसे कहा जाता है ?
- ’मारवाड रा परगना री विगत‘ को ( मुहणोत नैणसी द्वारा लिखित )

4 . 'वेलिक्रसन रूक्मणी री' की रचना किसने की थी ?
- पृथ्वीराज राठौड़ ने ( इसे पांचवाँ वेद कहा जाता है )

5. संगीतराज, संगीत मीमांसा ग्रन्थ और गीत गोविंद पर रसिक प्रिया नामक टीका के लेखक थे ?
- राणा कुम्भा

6. विजयसिंह पथिक द्वारा प्रकाशित समाचार पत्र कौनसा था ?
- राजस्थान केसरी
 
7. हम्मीर रासो किस भाषा का ग्रन्थ है, व इसके रचियता कौन है ? 
- संस्कृत भाषा का , रचियता- सारंगदेव

8. संगीत रत्नाकर के रचनाकार है ?
- शारंगधर
9. राजस्थानी भाषा में 'पातल और पीथल' की रचना किसने की ? 
- कन्हैया लाल सेठिया

10. 'मरूवाणी' क्या है ?
- राजस्थानी भाषा की मासिक पत्रिका

11. राव जैतसी रो छंद की रचना किसने की।
- सूजाजी

12. भूंगल पुराण का संबंध है।
- जसनाथजी
 
13. राजस्थानी हिंदी शब्दकोष (Hindi dictionary) के संपादक कौन थे ?
- सीताराम लालस ( पदमश्री विजेता )

14. राजस्थानी साहित्य का वीर गाथा काल है ? 
- विक्रम संवत 800 से 1460

15. भूंगल पुराण का संबंध है?
- जसनाथजी